Batteries power a wide range of devices and systems, including phones, computers, cars, IoT devices and energy storage stations. Experience shows there is a need to understand different batteries’ performance in order to select the right battery system during the energy storage design phase. There is also a need to factor in degradation trends to estimate project investment and revenue. In addition, there is a need to estimate battery capacity to compare this with the original equipment manufacturer’s warranty declaration, and also to perform periodical check-ups to ensure assets are operated properly and safely.
The standard practice is to do experimental testing. However, this method suffers from many drawbacks, as it is time-consuming - for example, the product qualification program (PQP) test can take several months or years to complete; destructive, for example full charge/discharge, fast charge/discharge, high/low temperature tests; and impractical in an operating situation. Lastly, testing cannot cover various scenarios due to complex operating conditions and the variability of batteries.